Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2023
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  

Note 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Basis of Presentation


All amounts are presented in U.S. Dollars. The unaudited interim condensed financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). They do not include all information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. Except as disclosed herein, there have been no material changes in the information disclosed in the notes to the financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2022, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K , filed with the SEC on March 9, 2023, as amended by the Company’s Amendment No. 1 on Form 10-K/A, with the SEC on April 28, 2023 (the “2022 Form 10-K”). The interim unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with those audited financial statements included in the 2022 Form 10-K. In the opinion of management, all adjustments considered necessary for fair presentation, consisting solely of normal recurring adjustments, have been made. Operating results for the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023, or any other period.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the fair value of financial instruments, stock-based compensation and the valuation allowance relating to the Company’s deferred tax assets.


Concentrations of Credit Risk


The Company maintains deposits in a financial institution which is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). At various times, the Company has deposits in this financial institution in excess of the amount insured by the FDIC. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk.




Investments as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 consist of U.S. Treasury Bills, which are classified as held-to-maturity, and Certificates of Deposit totaling $6.1 million and $9.8 million as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. The Company determines the appropriate balance sheet classification of its investments at the time of purchase and evaluates the classification at each balance sheet date. All of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills mature within the subsequent twelve months from the date of purchase. Unrealized gains and losses were de minimus. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the carrying value of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills approximates their fair value due to their short-term maturities.


Cash Equivalents


The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company invested $2.2 and $3.9 million, respectively, in Treasury Bills that are considered cash equivalents due to their maturity date being less than three months from the date of purchase.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company utilizes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:


Level 1 - quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.


Level 2 - quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable.


Level 3 - inputs that are unobservable (for example, cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions).


The carrying amounts of cash, investments and accounts payable approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The amount of debt included in the accompanying balance sheets approximates its fair value because the interest rate of the notes approximates the current market interest rate.


Common Stock Purchase Warrants


The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) provide the Company with a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) providing that such contracts are indexed to the Company’s own stock. The Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the Company’s control), or (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company assesses classification of its common stock purchase warrants and other free-standing derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets, liabilities and equity is required.  The Company’s free-standing derivatives consist of warrants to purchase common stock that were issued in connection with its notes payable and public and private offerings. The Company evaluated these warrants to assess their proper classification using the applicable criteria enumerated under U.S. GAAP and determined that the common stock purchase warrants meet the criteria for equity classification in the accompanying balance sheets as of June 30, 2023.


Research and Development Expenses


The Company expenses all research and development expenses as incurred. These costs include payroll, employee benefits, supplies, contracted for lab services, depreciation and other personnel-related costs associated with product development.


Share-Based Payments


The Company accounts for share-based payments using the fair value method. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured, as discussed below, on the grant date. For non-employees, fair value is generally valued based on the fair value of the services provided or the fair value of the equity instruments on the measurement date, whichever is more readily determinable. The Company has granted stock options at exercise prices equal to the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported by Nasdaq, with input from management on the date of grant. Upon exercise of an option or warrant, the Company issues new shares of common stock out of its authorized shares.


The weighted-average fair value of options and warrants has been estimated on the grant date or measurement date using the Black-Scholes pricing model. The fair value of each instrument is estimated on the grant date or measurement date utilizing certain assumptions for a risk-free interest rate, volatility and expected remaining lives of the awards. The risk-free interest rate used is the United States Treasury rate for the day of the grant having a term equal to the life of the equity instrument. Volatility was derived from the Company’s historical share prices. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. During the six months ended June 30 2023, the Company did not grant any options or warrants to purchase shares of its common stock.


The Black-Scholes assumptions are as follows:


    For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
    2023     2022  
Expected life    
      6.25 years  
Risk free interest rate    
      1.47 %
Expected volatility    
      92 %
Expected dividend yield    
Forfeiture rate    


As of June 30, 2023, total unrecognized stock compensation expense was $2.0 million, which will be recognized as those options vest over a period of approximately three years. The amount of future stock option compensation expense could be affected by any future option grants or by any option holders leaving the Company before their grants are fully vested.


Net Loss Per Share of Common Stock


Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.  Diluted net earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other instruments to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock.  Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as their inclusion would be anti-dilutive and consist of the following:


    As of June 30,  
    2023     2022  
Options     250,921       325,876  
Warrants     1,177,315       1,182,503  
Totals     1,428,236       1,508,379