Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  

Basis of Presentation


All amounts are presented in U.S. Dollars.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the fair value of financial instruments, stock-based compensation and the valuation allowance relating to the Company’s deferred tax assets.


Concentrations of Credit Risk


The Company maintains deposits in a financial institution which is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). At various times, the Company has deposits in this financial institution in excess of the amount insured by the FDIC. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk.




Investments consist of U.S. Treasury Bills of $2,939,401, which are classified as held-to-maturity, and Certificates of Deposit of $2,689,608. The Company determines the appropriate balance sheet classification of its investments at the time of purchase and evaluates the classification at each balance sheet date. All of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills and Certificates of Deposit mature within the next twelve months. Unrealized gains and losses are de minimus. As of December 31, 2017, the carrying value of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills approximates their fair value due to their short-term maturities.


Capitalization of Patent Costs


 The Company capitalizes the costs of its patents which consists of legal and filing fees related to the prosecution of patent filings. The patents will be amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated remaining lives of the patents which is 20 years from the initial filing of the patent. Amortization for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $292.


Cash Equivalents


The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company did not have any cash equivalents.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation of computer and lab equipment is computed by use of the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to five years. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the expected lives of the assets are expensed to operations, while expenditures for major upgrades to existing items are capitalized. Upon retirement or other disposition of these assets, the costs and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and resulting gains or losses are reflected in the results of operations.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company utilizes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:


Level 1 - quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

Level 2 - quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable

Level 3 - inputs that are unobservable (for example, cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions)


The carrying amounts of cash and accounts payable approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The amount of debt included in the accompanying balance sheets approximates its fair value because the interest rate of the notes approximates the current market interest rate.


Common Stock Purchase Warrants


The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) provides the Company with a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) providing that such contracts are indexed to the Company’s own stock. The Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the Company’s control), or (ii) gives the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company assesses classification of its common stock purchase warrants and other free-standing derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets, liabilities and equity is required.  The Company’s free-standing derivatives consist of warrants to purchase common stock that were issued in connection with its notes payable and private offering. The Company evaluated these warrants to assess their proper classification using the applicable criteria enumerated under U.S. GAAP and determined that the common stock purchase warrants meet the criteria for equity classification in the accompanying balance sheets as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.


Income Taxes


The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of items that have been included or excluded in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts (“temporary differences”) at enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse. 


The benefit of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in income tax returns are recognized in the financial statements if such positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Management has evaluated and concluded that there were no material uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in the Company’s financial statements as of December 31, 2017 and 2016. The Company does not expect any significant changes in the unrecognized tax benefits within twelve months of the reporting date.


The Company classifies interest expense and any related penalties related to income tax uncertainties as a component of income tax expense. No interest or penalties have been recognized during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.


Research and Development Expenses


The Company expenses all research and development expenses as incurred. These costs include payroll, employee benefits, supplies, contracted for lab services, depreciation and other personnel-related costs associated with product development.


Share-Based Payment


The Company accounts for share-based payments using the fair value method. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured, as discussed below, on the grant date. For non-employees, fair value is generally valued based on the fair value of the services provided or the fair value of the equity instruments on the measurement date, whichever is more readily determinable and re-measured on each financial reporting date until the service is complete. The Company has granted stock options at exercise prices equal to the higher of (i) the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported on the OTCQX marketplace, (ii) the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported by the TSX Venture Exchange or (iii) the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported by NASDAQ as determined by the board of directors, with input from management on the date of grant. Upon exercise of an option or warrant, the Company issues new shares of common stock out of its authorized shares.


The weighted-average fair value of options and warrants has been estimated on the grant date or measurement date using the Black-Scholes pricing model. The fair value of each instrument is estimated on the grant date or measurement date utilizing certain assumptions for a risk-free interest rate, volatility and expected remaining lives of the awards. Since the Company has a limited history of being publicly traded, the fair value of stock-based payment awards issued was estimated using a volatility derived from an index of comparable entities. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, the Company’s stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company is required to estimate the expected forfeiture rate and only recognize expense for those shares expected to vest. In estimating the Company’s forfeiture rate, the Company analyzed its historical forfeiture rate, the remaining lives of unvested options, and the number of vested options as a percentage of total options outstanding. If the Company’s actual forfeiture rate is materially different from its estimate, or if the Company reevaluates the forfeiture rate in the future, the stock-based compensation expense could be significantly different from what the Company has recorded in the current period.


The weighted-average Black-Scholes assumptions are as follows:


    For the Years Ended
December 31,
    2017     2016  
Expected life     7 years       6 years  
Risk free interest rate     2.23 %     1.31 %
Expected volatility     80 %     79 %
Expected dividend yield     0 %     0 %
Forfeiture rate     0 %     0 %


As of December 31, 2017, total unrecognized stock option compensation expense is $2,175,601, which will be recognized as those options vest over a period of approximately four years. The amount of future stock option compensation expense could be affected by any future option grants or by any option holders leaving the Company before their grants are fully vested.


Net Loss Per Share of Common Stock


Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.  Diluted net earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other instruments to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock.  Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as their inclusion would be anti-dilutive and consist of the following:


    As of December 31,  
    2017     2016  
Options     5,691,414       4,652,497  
Warrants     4,533,020       6,681,051  
Totals     10,224,434       11,333,548  

Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In May 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which clarifies what constitutes a modification of a share-based payment award.  The ASU is intended to provide clarity and reduce both diversity in practice and cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718 to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award.  ASU 2017-09 is effective for public entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years.  The Company does not anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2017-09 will have a material impact on its financial condition or results of operations.


In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), which simplifies certain elements of cash flow classification. The new guidance is intended to reduce diversity in practice in how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. The new guidance will be effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company does not anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016-15 will have a material impact on its financial condition or results of operations.


In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This ASU simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company adopted this guidance as of January 1, 2017 and elected to account for forfeitures in the period they occur. The adoption of ASU No. 2016-09 did not have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations.