Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Note 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
All amounts are presented in U.S. Dollars.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the fair value of financial instruments, stock-based compensation and the valuation allowance relating to the Company’s deferred tax assets.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company maintains deposits in a financial institution which is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). At various times, the Company has deposits in this financial institution in excess of the amount insured by the FDIC. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk.
Investments consist of U.S. Treasury Bills of $14,339,630, which are classified as held-to-maturity, and Certificates of Deposit of $2,120,796. The Company determines the appropriate balance sheet classification of its investments at the time of purchase and evaluates the classification at each balance sheet date. All of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills and Certificates of Deposit mature within the next twelve months. Unrealized gains and losses are de minimus. As of December 31, 2018, the carrying value of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills approximates their fair value due to their short-term maturities.
Capitalization of Patent Costs
The Company capitalizes the costs of its patents which consists of legal and filing fees related to the prosecution of patent filings. The patents will be amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated remaining lives of the patents which is 20 years from the initial filing of the patent. Amortization for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $1,079.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not have any cash equivalents.
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation of computer and lab equipment is computed by use of the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to five years. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the expected lives of the assets are expensed to operations, while expenditures for major upgrades to existing items are capitalized. Upon retirement or other disposition of these assets, the costs and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and resulting gains or losses are reflected in the results of operations.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company utilizes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
The carrying amounts of cash, investments and accounts payable approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The amount of debt included in the accompanying balance sheets approximates its fair value because the interest rate of the notes approximates the current market interest rate.
Common Stock Purchase Warrants
The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) provides the Company with a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) providing that such contracts are indexed to the Company’s own stock. The Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the Company’s control), or (ii) gives the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company assesses classification of its common stock purchase warrants and other free-standing derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets, liabilities and equity is required. The Company’s free-standing derivatives consist of warrants to purchase common stock that were issued in connection with its notes payable and private offering. The Company evaluated these warrants to assess their proper classification using the applicable criteria enumerated under U.S. GAAP and determined that the common stock purchase warrants meet the criteria for equity classification in the accompanying balance sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of items that have been included or excluded in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts (“temporary differences”) at enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse.
The benefit of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in income tax returns are recognized in the financial statements if such positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Management has evaluated and concluded that there were no material uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in the Company’s financial statements as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. The Company does not expect any significant changes in the unrecognized tax benefits within twelve months of the reporting date.
The Company classifies interest expense and any related penalties related to income tax uncertainties as a component of income tax expense. No interest or penalties have been recognized during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Research and Development Expenses
The Company expenses all research and development expenses as incurred. These costs include payroll, employee benefits, supplies, contracted for lab services, depreciation and other personnel-related costs associated with product development.
The Company accounts for share-based payments using the fair value method. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured, as discussed below, on the grant date. For non-employees, fair value is generally valued based on the fair value of the services provided or the fair value of the equity instruments on the measurement date, whichever is more readily determinable and re-measured on each financial reporting date until the service is complete. The Company has granted stock options at exercise prices equal to the higher of (i) the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported by Nasdaq, (ii) the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported by the TSX Venture Exchange or (iii) the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported on the OTCQX marketplace as determined by the board of directors, with input from management on the date of grant. Upon exercise of an option or warrant, the Company issues new shares of common stock out of its authorized shares.
The weighted-average fair value of options and warrants has been estimated on the grant date or measurement date using the Black-Scholes pricing model. The fair value of each instrument is estimated on the grant date or measurement date utilizing certain assumptions for a risk-free interest rate, volatility and expected remaining lives of the awards. The risk-free interest rate used is the United States Treasury rate for the day of the grant having a term equal to the life of the equity instrument. Since the Company has a limited history of being publicly traded, the fair value of stock-based payment awards issued was estimated using a volatility derived from an index of comparable entities. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, the Company’s stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company is required to estimate the expected forfeiture rate and only recognize expense for those shares expected to vest. In estimating the Company’s forfeiture rate, the Company analyzed its historical forfeiture rate, the remaining lives of unvested options, and the number of vested options as a percentage of total options outstanding. If the Company’s actual forfeiture rate is materially different from its estimate, or if the Company reevaluates the forfeiture rate in the future, the stock-based compensation expense could be significantly different from what the Company has recorded in the current period.
The weighted-average Black-Scholes assumptions are as follows:
As of December 31, 2018, total unrecognized stock compensation expense was $4,103,258, which will be recognized as those options vest over a period of approximately four years. The amount of future stock option compensation expense could be affected by any future option grants or by any option holders leaving the Company before their grants are fully vested.
Net Loss Per Share of Common Stock
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other instruments to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as their inclusion would be anti-dilutive and consist of the following:
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”), which primarily aligns the measurement and classification guidance for share-based payments to nonemployees with the guidance for share-based payments to employees. ASU 2018-07 also clarifies that any share-based payment issued to a customer should be evaluated under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2018-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The Company adopted ASU 2018-07 during the three months ended September 30, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not have a material impact on the financial statements contained herein.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-09, “Codification Improvements” (“ASU 2018-09”). These amendments provide clarifications and corrections to certain ASC subtopics including, but not limited to, the following: Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income – Overall (Topic 220-10), Debt - Modifications and Extinguishments (Topic 470-50), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity – Overall (Topic 480-10), Compensation - Stock Compensation - Income Taxes (Topic 718-740) and Fair Value Measurement – Overall (Topic 820-10). The majority of the amendments in ASU 2018-09 will be effective in annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on its financial statements.
In May 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which clarifies what constitutes a modification of a share-based payment award. The ASU is intended to provide clarity and reduce both diversity in practice and cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718 to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. ASU 2017-09 is effective for public entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The adoption of ASU 2017-09 did not have a material impact on the financial statements contained herein.