Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  

Note 9 - Income Taxes


The tax effects of temporary differences that give rise to deferred tax assets are as follows:


    As of December 31,  
    2018     2017  
Accrued expenses   $ 168,068     $ 23,595  
Stock compensation     632,254       359,364  
Net operating loss carryforward     8,949,957       5,656,895  
Research and development credit carry forward     488,942       417,882  
Total deferred tax assets     10,239,221       6,457,736  
Valuation allowance     (10,239,221 )     (6,457,736 )
Deferred tax asset, net of valuation allowance   $ -     $ -  


A reconciliation of the statutory federal income tax rate to the Company’s effective tax rate is as follows:


    For the Years Ended
December 31,
    2018     2017  
U.S. statutory federal rate     (21.0 )%     (34.0 )%
State income taxes, net of federal tax     (7.0 )%     (5.4 )%
Federal tax rate change     - %     28.3 %
Permanent differences     5.4 %     2.2 %
Prior year true-ups     0.2 %     0.4 %
R&D tax credit     (0.5 )%     (0.8 )%
Change in valuation allowance     22.9 %     9.3 %
Income tax provision (benefit)     - %     - %


The income tax provision consists of the following:


    For the Years Ended
December 31,
    2018     2017  
Current   $ -     $ -  
Deferred     (2,837,776 )     (718,326 )
State and local                
Current     -       -  
Deferred     (943,709 )     (199,571 )
Change in valuation allowance     3,781,485       917,897  
Income tax provision (benefit)   $ -     $ -  


The Company assesses the likelihood that deferred tax assets will be realized. To the extent that realization is not more-likely-than-not, a valuation allowance is established.  Based upon the Company’s losses since inception, management believes that it is more-likely-than-not that future benefits of deferred tax assets will not be realized. Therefore, the Company established a full valuation allowance as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the change in valuation allowance was $3,781,485 and $917,897, respectively. 


The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and various state jurisdictions, principally California and New Jersey. The Company is subject to examination by the various taxing authorities.  The Company’s federal and state income tax returns for tax years beginning in 2014 remain subject to examination.


At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had approximately $32,000,000 and $21,000,000, respectively, of federal and state net operating loss carryovers that may be available to offset future taxable income.   The Company’s 2017 and prior federal and state net operating loss carry forwards, if not utilized, will begin to expire from 2029 to 2038. Beginning with 2018, and for subsequent years, the Company’s NOLs will have indefinite lives for federal tax purposes. In accordance with Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, the usage of the Company’s net operating loss carryforward could be limited in the event of a change in ownership. At this time, the Company has not completed a full study to assess whether an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code occurred due to the costs and complexities associated with such a study.


On December 22, 2017, new legislation was signed into law, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which included, among other things, a provision to reduce the federal corporate income tax rate to 21%.  Under ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, the enactment of the Tax Act also requires companies, to recognize the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities and the retroactive effects of changes in tax laws in the period in which the new legislation is enacted. There is no further change to its assertion on maintaining a full valuation allowance against its U.S. deferred tax assets. The Company’s gross deferred tax assets have been revalued from 34% to 21% with a corresponding offset to the valuation allowance and any potential other taxes arising due to the Tax Act will result in reductions to its net operating loss carryforward and valuation allowance. As of December 31, 2017, deferred tax assets of approximately $9,200,000 were revalued to approximately $6,500,000 with a corresponding decrease to the Company’s valuation allowance. Therefore, there was no net impact on the Company’s financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017.